Danh sách toàn bộ 620 động từ bất quy tắc trong tiếng Anh



Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Abide Abode/Abided Abode/Abided/Abidden To continue
To reside\live
Aby/Abey Abought Abought To make amends for something wrong
Alight Alit/Alighted Alit/Alighted To get off a bus, train, etc.
Arise Arose Arisen To originate
To get up from horizontal position, out of bed
To come into existence
Awake Awoke Awoken To stop sleeping and become conscious


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Backbite Backbit Backbitten To speak badly about someone
Backfit Backfit Backfit To fit new parts into an older machine that weren’t available when the machine was made
Backlight Backlit Backlit To illuminate from behind (photography)
Backslide Backslid Backslid/Backslidden To stop making progress and start regressing
Be Was/Were Been To exist, live or occur.
To have as a quality or a state
An auxiliary verb
Bear Bore Born/Borne To carry
To tolerate
To give birth to
Beat Beat Beaten To hit repeatedly
Become Became Become To come into existence
Bedight Bedight/Bedighted Bedight/Bedighted To adorn, decorate
Befall Befell Befallen To happen
To happen to somebody or something
Beget Begot/Begat Begotten To cause something to happen
To procreate
Begin Began Begun To start something
Begird Begirt/Begirded Begirt To encircle
Behight Behight Behight/Behoten To promise or vow
To order
Behold Beheld Beheld To become conscious of by seeing
Belay Belaid/Belayed Belaid/Belayed To secure a boat with a rope
To tie up
Bend Bent Bent To curve something by distorting its shape
Bereave Bereft Bereft/Bereaved To lose a relative through their death
To deprive
Beseech Besought/Beseeched Besought/Beseeched To ask someone very insistently to do something
Beset Beset Beset To be restricted and occupied by difficulties
Bespeak Bespoke Bespoken To be a signal or symbol of something

To set aside or reserve something

To ask for

Bestrew Bestrewed Bestrewed/Bestrewn To cover a surface by throwing things about randomly
Bestride Bestrode Bestridden To sit or stand with one leg on either side of something
Bet Bet Bet To risk money against the result of a future event
Betake Betook Betaken To go to a place
Bethink Bethought Bethought To think about something
To remind yourself
Beweep Bewept Bewept To cry for or over someone or something
Bid Bid Bid To make an offer of money or services
Bid Bade Bidden To command or urge someone to do something
Bide Bided/Bode Bided To wait for
To tolerate
To withstand
Bind Bound Bound To tie something with string, or similar, to hold it
Bite Bit Bitten To cut or hold with teeth
Blaw Blawed Blawn To blow
Bleed Bled Bled To lose blood through a cut in the skin
Blend Blended/Blent Blended/Blent To mix together
Bless Blessed/Blest Blessed/Blest To wish or confer happiness
To make holy
Blow Blew Blown To move air, wind and gases
Bottle-feed Bottle-fed Bottle-fed To feed a baby with a bottle
Bowstring Bowstrung/Bowstringed Bowstrung To strangle with the string from a bow
Break Broke Broken To cause something to separate into at least two pieces
Breast-feed Breast-fed Breast-fed To feed a baby with breast milk
Breed Bred Bred To produce animals or plants by controlling their reproduction
Bring Brought Brought To carry or convey something to the place where you are going
Broadcast Broadcast/Broadcasted Broadcast/Broadcasted To transmit radio or TV signals
Browbeat Browbeat Browbeat/Browbeaten To put pressure on someone or bully them to do something
Build Built Built To construct
Burn Burnt/Burned Burnt/Burned To consume or be consumed by fire
Burst Burst Burst To break something open, usually by internal pressure, such as a balloon with too much air in it
Bust Bust Bust To break
Buy Bought Bought To acquire something in exchange for money


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Cast Cast Cast To throw or project something
Catch Caught Caught To receive
To stop and hold a moving object, usually with your hands
To make something unable to escape
Cheerlead Cheerled Cheerled To cheer and support a team in an organised group
Chide Chid Chid/Chidden To tell somebody off when they have done something wrong
Choose Chose Chosen To select
Clap Clapped/Clapt Clapped/Clapt To hit your hands together to make a sound to show approval
To make a loud noise, like thunder
Clear-cut Clear-cut Clear-cut To cut down all trees in an area
Cleave Cleft/Cleaved/Clove Cleft/Cleaved/Cloven To separate or divide something, often with force
To stick or hold together
Cleek Claught/Claucht/Cleeked Cleeked To grasp or take hold of
Clepe Cleped Cleped/Ycleped/Yclept To call or name
Cling Clung Clung To hold on to or to stick to
Clothe Clad/Clothed Clad/Clothed To dress someone or provide them with clothes
Colorbreed Colorbred Colorbred To breed an animal to be of a particular color
Colorcast Colorcast Colorcast To broadcast in color
Come Came Come To move towards or to arrive at a specified place, time or situation
Cost Cost Cost The amount of money required to buy something; it costs five dollars.
Cost-cut Cost-cut Cost-cut To redcuce costs or expenditure
Counterdraw Counterdrew Counterdrawn To copy by tracing
Counterlight Counterlit Counterlit To light something directly from opposite sides
Cowrite Cowrote Cowritten To write with someone
Crash-dive Crash-dived/Crash-dove Crash-dived To go down very quickly
Creep Crept Crept To move along the ground lying down
Creep-feed Creep-fed Creep-fed To feed young animals in a special area that adult animals can’t get in
Crib-bite Crib-bit Crib-bitten To bite its manger and swallow air (of a horse)
Cross-bite Cross-bit Cross-bitten To thwart or stop something happening by deception
Cross-string Cross-strung Cross-strung To place bass strings on a piano across the treble strings
Crossbreed Crossbred Crossbred To breed animals or plants of different species, like a mule, which is a crossbreed of a donkey and a horse
Crosscut Crosscut Crosscut To move between scenes or stories in a film or narrative
Crosslight Crosslit Crosslit To illuminate from different sides, but not directly opposite
Crow Crowed/Crew Crowed To boast
To utter a sound indicating pleasure
Cut Cut Cut To break the surface of something with a knife or similar tool


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Dare Dared/Durst Dared To have sufficient courage
Daydream Daydreamt/Daydreamt Daydreamt/Daydreamt To have dream-like thoughts when a wake
To have a fantasy
Deal Dealt Dealt To distribute, especially playing cards in games
Deep-freeze Deep-froze Deep-frozen To freeze or store frozen
To suspend progress or activity
Dig Dug Dug To make a hole in the ground
Dight Dight/Dighted Dight/Dighted To dictate orders
Dispread Dispread Dispread To spread out
Disprove Disproved Disproven/Disproved To prove that something is fale or wrong
Dive Dived/Dove Dived To jump head first into water
To fall quickly
Do Did Done To perform or carry out
Dogfight Dogfought Dogfought To fight in aeroplanes
To arrange a fight between dogs for sport
Dow Dought/Dowed Dought/Dowed To have the ability to do something
To do well
Draw Drew Drawn To make a picture using a pen or pencil
Dream Dreamt/Dreamed Dreamt/Dreamed To see visual images while sleeping
Drink Drank Drunk To consume liquids
Drip-feed Drip-fed Drip-fed To feed someone with fluids going into the vein
To release information very slowly, bit by bit
Drive Drove Driven To operate and control a car or other vehicle
Dwell Dwelt Dwelt To reside or live somewhere


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Eat Ate Eaten To consume solid food
End-run End-ran End-run To avoid doing something by cheating or deceit
Engird Engirt Engirt To encircle, encompass
Engrave Engraved Engraved/Engraven To carve letters or a pattern into the surface of something
Enwind Enwound Enwound To make into a coil
To wrap around something


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Fall Fell Fallen To move downwards or to the ground
Farebeat Farebeat Farebeaten To avoid paying fares when using public transport
Fast-cut Fast-cut Fast-cut To cut quickly from one scene to another in a film
Feed Fed Fed To give or supply food
Feel Felt Felt To sense by touch
To experience an emotion, or sensation
Fight Fought Fought To try to hurt or kill someone in combat or war
Find Found Found To discover something either by chance or when looking for it
Fit Fit/Fitted Fit/Fitted To be the correct size, for clothes, etc. (fit/fit/fit)
To measure someone for size (fit fit/fitted/ fit/fitted)
Flash-freeze Flash-froze Flash-frozen To freeze food very rapidly to preserve taste and nutrients
Flee Fled Fled To run away in order to find safety
Fling Flung Flung To throw or move something suddenly
Floodlight Floodlit Floodlit To use powerful lights to illuminate something outside at night
Fly Flew Flown To move through the air
To travel by aeroplane
Flyblow Flyblew Flyblown To contaminate by laying eggs, the way a fly does
Forbear Forbore Forborne/Forborn Not to use or talk about something
Forbid Forbade/Forbad Forbidden To prohibit
Force-feed Force-fed Force-fed To feed someone who refuses or doesn’t want to eat
Fordo/Foredo Fordid Fordone To ruin or destroy
Forecast Forecast/Forecasted Forecast/Forecasted To predict the future
Forefeel Forefelt Forefelt To have a feeling before something happens
To have a premonition
Forego Forewent Foregone To preceed something
To go without something
Foreknow Foreknew Foreknown To know something beforehand
Forerun Foreran Forerun To go before something
To show that something is going to happen
Foresee Foresaw Foreseen To predict or see the future
Foreshow Foreshowed Forshowed/Foreshown To show something or make it known beforehand
To foretell
Forespeak Forespoke Forespoken To predict
To speak of something beforehand
Foretell Foretold Foretold To predict the future
Forget Forgot Forgotten To be unable to remember something
Forgive Forgave Forgiven To pardon or stop being angry with someone who has offended you
Forlese Forlore Forlorn To lose completely
Forsake Forsook Forsaken To give something up
To abandon
Forswear Forswore Forsworn To make a false promise or oath
Fraught Fraught/Fraughted Fraught/Fraughted To stock
To load a ship, etc
To hire a ship, etc
Free-fall Free-fell Free-fallen To drop or fall suddenly
To fall through the air without opening a parachute
Freeze Froze Frozen To make liquids into solids by cold temperatures
To store food below zero degrees centigrade
Frostbite Frostbit Frostbitten To injure or damage part of the body through extreme cold


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Gainsay Gainsaid Gainsaid To contradict or deny
Gaslight Gaslit/Gaslighted Gaslit/Gaslighted To frighten and confuse someone so much that they think they are going mad
Geld Gelded/Gelt Gelded/Gelt To castrate an animal
Get Got Got/Gotten To obtain, catch or receive
Ghostwrite Ghostwrote Ghostwritten To write for someone else, who will put their name as the author
Gild Gilt/Gilded Gilt/Gilded To cover something with a thin layer of gold
Gin Gan Gan To begin something
Gird Girded/Girt Girded/Girt To secure or encirle something with a belt or bend
Give Gave Given To offer something as a present
Gnaw Gnawed Gnawed/Gnawn To bite or chew

To cause worry

Go Went Gone/Been To travel to a place
Grave Graved Graven/Graved To dig
To carve
To fix in the memory
Grind Ground Ground To break something into a powder
Grow Grew Grown To increase in size


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Hagride Hagrode Hagridden To torment or cause nightmares
Halterbreak Halterbroke Halterbroken To break a horse in, to get it used to wearing a halter
Hamstring Hamstrung/Hamstringed Hamstrung/Hamstringed To make things difficult for someone doing something
Hand-feed Hand-fed Hand-fed To give food by hand
Hand-ride Hand-rode Hand-ridden To control an animal by hand
Handsew Handsewed Handsewn/Handsewed To sew by hand
Handwrite Handwrote Handwritten To write with a pen or pencil rather than a word processor
Hang Hung/Hanged Hung/Hanged To suspend from a support
To execute someone by supending them by the neck
Have Had Had To possess
To do
An auxiliary verb
Hear Heard Heard To detect or perceive sound
Heave Heaved/Hove Heaved/Hove To lift something heavy
To throw something heavy
Hew Hewed Hewn To cut things into pieces
Hide Hid Hidden To conceal or put something where it cannot be seen
Hight Hote/Hight Hoten To name
To promise
To command
Hit Hit Hit To touch somebody or something with force
Hoise Hoised/Hoist Hoised/Hoist To hoist or lift
Hoist Hoist/Hoisted Hoist/Hoisted To raise or lift using ropes, etc
Hold Held Held To secure something in your hand
To contain
House-sit House-sat House-sat To stay in someone’s house to look after it while they are away
Housebreak Housebroke Housebroken To train an animal to live in a house
Hurt Hurt Hurt To cause pain, injury or stress
To experience pain, injury or stress


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Inbreed Inbred Inbred To produce babies with health problems by sexual relations between close relatives
Indwell Indwelt Indwelt To inhabit
To exist as a guiding principle
Inhold Inheld Inheld To have as an inherent characteristic
Inlay Inlaid Inlaid To put a different material inside another for decoration, with a flat surface
Input Input/Inputted Input/Inputted To enter data into a computer
Inset Inset Inset To put a picture or graphic inside a lerger one
Interblend Interblended/Interblent Interblended/Interblent To blend things together
Interbreed Interbred Interbred To mix species or groups sexually
Intercut Intercut Intercut To move between different scenes or stories in a film or narrative
Intergrave Intergraved Intergraved/Intergraven To carve or engrave in alternate sections
Interlay Interlaid Interlaid To place among or between things
Interset Interset Interset To set among or between things
Interweave Interwove Interwoven To join or mix together
Interwind Interwound Interwound To wind together or intertwine
Inweave Inwove/Inweaved Inwoven/Inweaved To weave things together
Inwind Inwound Inwound To wrap or coil around


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Jerry-build Jerry-built Jerry-built To build something cheaply and badly


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Keep Kept Kept To have possession
To make somebody or something stay in a particular place
Ken Kent/Kenned Kent/Kenned To know
Kneel Knelt/Kneeled Knelt/Kneeled To support yourself on your knees
Knit Knit/Knitted Knit/Knitted To make clothes such as pullovers out of wool
Know Knew Known To be acquainted with
To have correctly in your memory


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Lade Laded Laden/Laded To load (put goods onto) a ship
Landslide Landslid/Landslided Landslid/Landslided To win a convincing and easy victory in an election
Lay Laid Laid To put something in a horizontal position
Lead Led Led To take someone somewhere or guide them
To be in command
Lean Leant/Leaned Leant/Leaned To place something at an incline for support against something
Leap Leapt/Leaped Leapt/Leaped To jump
Learn Learnt/Learned Learnt/Learned To acquire knowledge
Leave Left Left To go out of a place
Lend Lent Lent To give somebody money that must be returned
Lep Lept Lept To leap
Let Let Let To allow something to happen
To allow someone to do something
Lie Lay Lain To get into or be in a horizontal position
Light Lit Lit To make something burn
Linebreed Linebred Linebred Breed animals from a particular family
Lip-Read Lip-Read Lip-Read To work out what someone is saying from the movements of their mouth
Lose Lost Lost Not to have something because you do not know where it is


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Make Made Made To create or construct something
To cause somebody to do something
To perform an action
Mean Meant Meant To signify
To intend
Meet Met Met To make somebody’s acquaintance
To be in the same place as somebody
Melt Melted Molten/Melted To change from solid into a liquid as the temperature goes up
Misbecome Misbecame Misbecome Not to suit
Miscast Miscast Miscast To choose the wrong actor for a role
Mischoose Mischose Mischosen To choose wrongly
Miscut Miscut Miscut To cut something wrongly or badly
Misdeal Misdealt Misdealt To distribute playing cards wrongly in a game
Misdo Misdid Misdone To harm or injure
Misfall Misfell Misfallen To happen unluckily
Misfeed Misfed Misfed To feed incorrectly
To jam printers, photocpiers, etc, by feeding the paper incorrectly
Misgive Misgave Misgiven To become suspicious or worried
Mishear Misheard Misheard To hear something incorrectly
Mishit Mishit Mishit To hit a ball badly or inaccurately
Misknow Misknew Misknown To have the wrong idea about something
Mislay Mislaid Mislaid To lose or put something where you cannot find it
Mislead Misled Misled To make someone behave wrongly
To deceive
Mislearn Mislearnt/Mislearned Mislearnt/Mislearned To learn wrongly
Misread Misread Misread To read something incorrectly
Missay Missaid Missaid To say something incorrectly
To talk badly about someone
Missend Missent Missent To send to the wrong place or person
Misset Misset Misset To set or place wrongly or incorrectly
Misspeak Misspoke Misspoken To say or pronounce something wrongly

To say something that is incorrect or inaccurate

Misspell Misspelt/Misspelled Misspelt/Misspelled To write a word without using the correct letters
Misspend Misspent Misspent To waste time or money
Misswear Misswore Missworn To swear or make an oath falsely
Mistake Mistook Mistaken Not to understand
To confuse somebody with someone else
Misteach Mistaught Mistaught To teach wrongly or incorrectly
Mistell Mistold Mistold To tell something wrongly
Misthink Misthought Misthought To have mistaken thoughts or ideas
Misunderstand Misunderstood Misunderstood Not to understand
Miswear Misswore Misworn To wear badly
Miswed Miswed/Miswedded Miswed/Miswedded To marry wrongly
Miswrite Miswrote Miswritten To write something incorrectly
Moonlight Moonlit Moonlit To have a second job or to work illegally without paying tax
Mow Mowed Mown To cut grass or cereals


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Naysay Naysaid Naysaid To oppose or criticise
Nose-dive Nose-dived/Nose-dove Nose-dived/Nose-dove To dive or plunge nose first (aircraft)


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Offset Offset Offset To compenaste or counterbalance
Outbid Outbid Outbid To offer more money than someone in an auction or sale
Outbreed Outbred Outbred To breed faster than others
Outdo Outdid Outdone To do better than someone
Outdraw Outdrew Outdrawn To pull out
To pull a gun faster than an opponent
Outdrink Outdrank Outdrunk To drink more than someone else, usually alcohol
Outdrive Outdrove Outdriven To drive faster or better
Outfight Outfought Outfought To fight better than someone
Outfly Outflew Outflown To fly faster or further
Outgrow Outgrew Outgrown To grow faster than something or someone
To become too big or mature for something
Outlay Outlaid Outlaid To spend money for a particular purpose
Outleap Outleapt/Outleaped Outleapt/Outleaped To jump or leap further or higher
Output Output/Outputted Output/Outputted To put out or produce
Outride Outrode Outridden To ride faster than someone
Outrun Outran Outrun To run or go faster than someone
Outsee Outsaw Outseen To see further
To have greater foresight
Outsell Outsold Outsold To sell more than something or someone
Outshine Outshone Outshone To be better than someone
Outshoot Outshot Outshot To shoot faster or better
Outsing Outsang Outsung To sing better or louder than someone
Outsit Outsat Outsat To sit for longer than someone
Outsleep Outslept Outslept To sleep for longer than someone
Outsmell Outsmelt/Outsmelled Outsmelt/Outsmelled To have a better sense of smell
Outspeak Outspoke Outspoken To speak better or more than someone
Outspeed Outsped Outsped To go faster than someone or something
Outspend Outspent Outspent To spend more than someone
Outspin Outspun Outspun To finish or die
Outspring Outsprang Outsprung To spring or jump out
Outstand Outstood Outstood To be clearly different or better
Outswear Outswore Outsworn To exceed someone in swearing- oaths or bad language
Outswim Outswam Outswum To swim faster or further than someone
Outtell Outtold Outtold To be better or exceed in telling or calculating
Outthink Outthought Outthought To think better ideas than someone
Outthrow Outthrew Outthrown To throw further or more accurately
Outwear Outwore Outworn To last longer (of materials, clothes, etc)
Outwind Outwound Outwound To unloose
Outwork Outworked/Outwrought Outworked/Outwrought To work harder or better
Outwrite Outwrote Outwritten To be better at writing
Overbear Overbore Overborne To use force or authority to control
Overbid Overbid Overbid To bid more something is worth
To bid more than you can win in a card game
Overblow Overblew Overblown To become subdued
To blow away
To force too much
Overbreed Overbred Overbred To breed too much so that features become excessive
Overbuild Overbuilt Overbuilt To build too much, overdevelop
Overbuy Overbought Overbought To buy too much

To pay too much

Overcast Overcast Overcast To become cloudy
To sew with overcast stitiches (long slanting stitches)
Overcome Overcame Overcome To master a problem or difficult situation
To become helpless because of excessive emotions or physical difficulties
Overcut Overcut Overcut To cut down more trees than permitted
Overdo Overdid Overdone To do something to excess
To cook something too much
Overdraw Overdrew Overdrawn To take money out of an account so that a negative balance results
Overdrink Overdrank Overdrunk To drink too much
Overdrive Overdrove Overdriven To drive or work something too hard
Overeat Overate Overeaten To eat too much
Overfeed Overfed Overfed To give too much food
Overfly Overflew Overflown To fly over a place
Overgrow Overgrew Overgrown To grow too big or beyond a limit or boundary
Overhang Overhung Overhung To be above something
Overhear Overheard Overheard To hear something accidently that was not said to you
Overlay Overlaid Overlaid To cover something with a layer
Overleap Overleapt/Overleaped Overleapt/Overleaped To jump over
Overlearn Overlearnt/Overlearned Overlearnt/Overlearned To continue learning afer having reached a basic proficiency
Overlie Overlay Overlain To lie on top of

To kill by lying on top of

Overpass Overpast/Overpassed Overpast/Overpassed To cross, pass over
Overpay Overpaid Overpaid To pay too much
Override Overrode Overridden To ride through an enemy’s country
Overrun Overran Overrun To flood
To invade and take control
Oversee Oversaw Overseen To observe people’s work to make sure that it is done properly
Oversell Oversold Oversold To sell too much
To publicise too much
Overset Overset Overset To overpower
Oversew Oversewed Oversewn/Oversewed To sew two edges together with stitches overlapping both
Overshoot Overshot Overshot To go past a limit
Oversleep Overslept Overslept To sleep too late
Oversow Oversowed Oversown/Oversowed To sow on land that has already be sown
Overspeak Overspoke Overspoken To speak too long or use too many words
Overspend Overspent Overspent To spend more than allowed or budgeted
Overspill Overspilt/Overspilled Overspilt/Overspilled To spill over
To have a population that exceeds the space available
Overspin Overspun Overspun To make something last too long
Overspread Overspread Overspread To cover something
Overspring Oversprang Oversprung To jump over
Overstand Overstood Overstood Lose a sale of deal by sticking to a price or conditions unacceptable to the other party
Overstrew Overstrewed Overstrewed/Overstrewn To sprinkle or strew something onto another thing
Overstride Overstrode Overstridden To walk across or over
To walk faster than someone
To dominate
Overstrike Overstruck Overstruck To stamp a new value or inscription on a old coin
Overstring Overstrung Overstrung To tie a string too tightly
To string piano bass strings across treble strings
Overtake Overtook Overtaken To pass a vehicle that is going more slowly
Overthink Overthought Overthought To think or plan too much
Overthrow Overthrew Overthrown To remove someone forcibly from government or power
Overwear Overwore Overworn To wear something too much or often, or wear it out
Overwind Overwound Overwound To wind a clock or something too much so it strains the spring
Overwithhold Overwithheld Overwithheld To deduct too much tax from a payment or salary
Overwrite Overwrote Overwritten To record data on top of existing data, erasing the original


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Partake Partook Partaken To take part in something or a part of something, usually food
Pay Paid Paid To give somebody money in exchange for things or services
Pen Pent/Penned Pent/Penned To shut up or enclose in a cage, etc
Pinch-hit Pinch-hit Pinch-hit To bat instead of a player in baseball, especially when a hit is needed
Plead Pled/Pleaded Pled/Pleaded To tell a court that you are guilty or innocent
To ask for special treatment by authorities, etc.
Potshot Potshot/Potshotted Potshot To shoot at random
To criticise at random
Practice-teach Practice-taught Practice-taught To teach as part of training
Prebind Prebound Prebound To bind before
Prebuild Prebuilt Prebuilt Prefabricate
Precut Precut Precut To cut something before selling or assembling it
Predo Predid Predone To do something before a certain time of stage
Premake Premade Premade To make something before a time or stage
Prepay Prepaid Prepaid To pay for something using it
Presell Presold Presold To sell before a certain time
Preset Preset Preset To arrange something before it is needed
Preshrink Preshrank Preshrunk To shrink a fabric before selling it so that it will not become smaller when washed
Presplit Presplit Presplit To split or divide before a certain time
Price-cut Price-cut Price-cut To cut or reduce prices
Proofread Proofread Proofread To read something checking carefully for mistakes
Prove Proved Proven/Proved To demonstrate that something is true
Put Put Put To place something in a specific position


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Quick-freeze Quick-froze Quick-frozen To freeze something rapidly
Quit Quit Quit To stop doing something
To resign from a job


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Rap Rapped/Rapt Rapped/Rapt To be very affected by strong emotion
Re-prove Re-proved Re-proven/Re-proved To prove again
Read Read Read To look at written words and understand them
Reave Reft/Reaved Reft/Reaved To deprive

To take by force

Reawake Reawoke Reawoken/Reawaken To wake up again
Rebid Rebid Rebid To bid again
Rebind Rebound Rebound To cover a book again
Rebroadcast Rebroadcast Rebroadcast To transmit something on televison or the radio again
Rebuild Rebuilt Rebuilt To build something again
Recast Recast Recast To replace an actor or actress
Recut Recut Recut To cut again or differently
Redd Redd/Redded Redd/Redded To save or rescue
Redeal Redealt Redealt To deal playing cards again
Redo Redid Redone To do something again
Redraw Redrew Redrawn To draw again
To change boundaries, frontiers, etc
Reeve Rove/Reeved Rove/Reeved To gather together
To thread something through a hole
Refit Refit Refit To repair a ship, plane or vehicle

To fit something again

Regrind Reground Reground To grind again
To smooth worn engine parts
Regrow Regrew Regrown To grow again
Rehang Rehung Rehung To hang again or in a different position
Rehear Reheard Reheard To hear something again
Reknit Reknit/Reknitted Reknit/Reknitted To knit again
To join back together
Relay Relaid Relaid To operate a system where things are replaced as they become used or tired
Relearn Relearnt/Relearned Relearnt/Relearned To learn again
Relight Relit/Relighted Relit/Relighted To light or start something burning again
Remake Remade Remade To make something again, such as a new version of a film
Rend Rent Rent To tear or rip
Repay Repaid Repaid To pay somebody money owed
Reread Reread Reread To read again
Rerun Reran Rerun To show a film again
Resell Resold Resold To sell something again
Resend Resent Resent To send something again
Reset Reset Reset To put something back to the original way it was organised
Resew Resewed Resewn/Reswed To sew again
Reshoot Reshot Reshot To shoot a film scene again
Resit Resat Resat To take an exam or test again
Resow Resowed Resown/Resowed To sow again
Respell Respelled/Respelt Respelled/Respelt To spell again
Restring Restrung Restrung To fit new strings on a musical instrument or a bow
Retake Retook Retaken Take again, especially exams and tests
Reteach Retaught Retaught To teach again
Retear Retore Retorn To tear again, usually of injuries
Retell Retold Retold To tell something again
Rethink Rethought Rethought To think again
Retread Retrod Retrodden To tread again
To cut new tread in a tyre
Retrofit Retrofit/Retrofitted Retrofit/Retrofitted To fit new parts into an older machine that weren’t available when the machine was made
Rewake Rewoke/Rewaked Rewoken/Rewaked To wake again
Rewear Rewore Reworn To wear again
Reweave Rewove/Reweaved Rewoven/Reweaved To weave again
Rewed Rewed/Rewedded Rewed/Rewedded To marry again
Rewet Rewet/Rewetted Rewet/Rewetted To wet again
Rewin Rewon Rewon To win again
Rewind Rewound Rewound To put a cassette or video back to the beginning
Rewrite Rewrote Rewritten To write something again, usually with improvements
Rid Rid/Ridded Rid/Ridded To dispose of
Ride Rode Ridden To travel by horse, bike or motorbike
Ring Rang Rung To telephone
To make sounds with a bell
Rise Rose Risen To move upwards
Rive Rived Riven/Rived To break apart ot split
Rough-hew Rough-hewed Rough-hewn To make a rough version of something
Roughcast Roughcast Roughcast To prepare a rough form of something
Run Ran Run To move quickly, so that both legs leave the ground


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Sand-cast Sand-cast Sand-cast To make a cast by pouring metal into a mold made of sand.
Saw Sawed Sawn/Sawed To cut wood, etc, with a tool
Say Said Said To speak words
See Saw Seen To notice with your eyes
Seek Sought Sought To try to find something
Self-feed Self-fed Self-fed To feed itself without assistance
Self-sow Self-sowed Self-sown/Self-sowed To sow itself without assistance
Sell Sold Sold To receive money in exchange for goods
Send Sent Sent To cause something to be taken to a specific destination, especially letters, message, etc.
Set Set Set To place something somewhere
To fix something in a particular position
Sew Sewed Sewn/Sewed To join pieces of material together using thread
Shake Shook Shaken To vibrate
To make something vibrate
Shave Shaved Shaven/Shaved To remove body hair
Shear Shore/Sheared Shorn/Sheared To cut with scissors, especially wool from sheep
Shed Shed Shed To fall off or let something fall off; snakes shed their skin
Shend Shent Shent To shame or disgrace
Shew Shewed Shewn/Shewed Show
Shine Shone Shone To give off or reflect bright light
Shit Shat/Shit Shat/Shit To get rid of solid body waste
Shoe Shod Shod To provide with shoes, especially horses
Shoot Shot Shot To fire a bullet from a gun
To kill or hurt somebody with a gun
Shortcut Shortcut Shortcut To use a shorter or quicker way of going somehere or doing something
Show Showed Shown To allow somebody to see something so that they can become aware of it
Shrink Shrank Shrunk To become smaller
To make something smaller
Shrive Shrove Shriven To confess or listen to a confession, a religious term
Shut Shut Shut To close something
Sidewind Sidewound Sidewound To move like the sidewinder snake
Sight-read Sight-read Sight-read To read music
Sightsee Sightsaw Sightseen To visit famous monuments, etc
Sing Sang Sung To make music with your voice
Sink Sank Sunk To move downwards in water
To make something move downwards in water
Sit Sat Sat To support your body with your buttocks not your feet, with the back in a vertical position as on a chair
Skywrite Skywrote Skywritten To write in the sky with smoke
Slay Slew Slain To kill
Sleep Slept Slept To be in a relaxed state with your eyes closed
Slide Slid Slid/Slidden To move on a smooth surface, such as ice
Sling Slung Slung To throw something somewhere
Slink Slunk Slunk To move in a suspicious and guilty way
Slit Slit Slit To make a long thin cut in something
Smell Smelt/Smelled Smelt/Smelled To detect odours with your nose
To emit odours
Smite Smote Smitten To hit
Snapshoot Snapshot Snapshot Take a quick photograph
Sneak Sneaked/Snuck Sneaked/Snuck To move around guiltily or to avoid being noticed
Soothsay Soothsaid Soothsaid To predict the future
Sow Sowed Sown To plant seeds in the ground to produce plants or cereals
Speak Spoke Spoken To say words with your mouth
To be able to use a language
Speed Sped/Speeded Sped/Speeded To move quickly
To drive faster than legally permitted
Spell Spelt/Spelled Spelt/Spelled To use the correct combination of letters for a word
Spellbind Spellbound Spellbound To put into a trance or captivate
Spend Spent Spent To Use money to buy things
To use time or energy doimg something
Spill Spilt/Spilled Spilt/Spilled To allow liquids out of their containers accidentally
Spin Span/Spun Spun To turn repeatedly in circles around a fixed point
To make something turn repeatedly in circles
Spit Spat/Spit Spat/Spit To eject saliva, liquid or food from the mouth
Split Split Split To divide
To break open
Spoil Spoilt/Spoiled Spoilt/Spoiled To let something go bad
To go bad
Spoonfeed Spoonfed Spoonfed To give someone information in small and very easy bits
Spread Spread Spread To cover the surface of one thing with something else, like butter on bread
Spring Sprang Sprung To jump
To become active
Stall-feed Stall-fed Stall-fed To feed or fatten an animal in a stall
Stand Stood Stood To be in a vertical position with the weight on the feet
To get into this position
Stave Stove/Staved/Stoved Stove/Staved/Stoved To break a hole in something
Steal Stole Stolen To take property or money that is not yours
Stick Stuck Stuck To attach things with glue
To insert a sharp object into something
Sting Stung Stung To feel pain caused by an insect or plant or in a particular part of the body
Stink Stank Stunk To smell very badly
Straphang Straphung Straphung To hold a strap for support
Strew Strewed Strewn/Strewed To distribute things randomly over a surface
Stride Strode/Strided Stridden To walk confidently
Strike Struck Struck/Stricken To stop working as a protest about working conditions
To hit
String Strung Strung To attach something using a cord
Strip Stript/Stripped Stript/Stripped To undress
To remove the covering of something
Strive Strove Striven To try very hard to do something
Sublet Sublet Sublet To rent something you have rented
Sunburn Sunburned/Sunburnt Sunburned/Sunburnt To get red skin from being in the sun for too long
Swear Swore Sworn To use words which are regarded as offensive
To promise
Sweat Sweat/Sweated Sweat/Sweated To perspire
Sweep Swept/Sweeped Swept/Sweeped To clean floors using a brush
Swell Swelled Swollen To increase in size usually by filling with liquids or gases
Swim Swam Swum To travel in water by moving your arms and legs
Swing Swung Swung To move from side to side from a fixed point
Swink Swank/Swonk Swonken To work, toil or labour
Switch-hit Switch-hit Switch-hit To bat right-handed against a left-handed bowler, or vice versa, in baseball


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Take Took Taken To perform an action
To acquire
Teach Taught Taught To instruct or train somebody
Team-teach Team-taught Team-taught To teach with more than one teacher for the class or group
Tear Tore Torn To make a hole or divide material, paper, etc.
Telecast Telecast/Telecasted Telecast/Telecasted To broadcast on TV
Tell Told Told To give somebody information
Test-drive Test-drove Test-driven To drive a car to test it before buying
Test-fly Test-flew Test-flown To test a plane
Think Thought Thought To have an opinion
To use the brain
Thrive Throve/Thrived Thriven/Thrived To do very well because the circumstances or situation is right
Throw Threw Thrown To cause an object to leave your hand in such a way that it travels through the air
Thrust Thrust Thrust To push with force
Thunderstrike Thunderstruck Thunderstruck/Thunderstricken To strike with lightning
To shock
Tine Tint/Tined Tint/Tined To shut
Toss Tossed/Tost Tossed/Tost Throw around
Tread Trod Trodden To put your foot down
Troubleshoot Troubleshot Troubleshot To solve a problem
Typecast Typecast Typecast To give an actor the same sort of role repeatedly
Typeset Typeset Typeset To compose type for printing
Typewrite Typewrote Typewritten To write with a typewriter


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Unbear Unbore Unborn/Unborne To remove a horse’s rein and straps
Unbend Unbent Unbent To retore something to its original shape that has been distorted
Unbind Unbound Unbound To set something free
To untie, remove ropes, chains, etc..
Unbuild Unbuilt Unbuilt To demolish
Unclothe Unclad/Unclothed Unclad/Unclothed To remove clothes
Underbid Underbid Underbid/Underbidden To offer less money in an auction or sale
Underbuy Underbought Underbought To buy for less than the real value
Undercut Undercut Undercut To sell at a cheaper price than a competitor
Underdelve Underdelved Underdolven/Underdelved To dive, dig, explore under something
Underdo Underdid Underdone To do less than necessary
Not to cook enough
Underfeed Underfed Underfed To give too little food to someone or an animal
Undergird Undergirt/Undergirded Undergirt/Undergirded To make something secure underneath
To give moral support
Undergo Underwent Undergone To suffer or go through an unpleasant experience, such as surgery
Underlay Underlaid Underlaid To put underneath something
Underlet Underlet Underlet To rent for less than the real value
Underlie Underlay Underlain To be the real reason, meaning or idea behind something, usually hidden or not clear
Underpay Underpaid Underpaid To pay someone too little or pay less than the price
Underrun Underran Underrun To pass or flow underneath something
Undersell Undersold Undersold To sell at a lower price than a competitor
Undershoot Undershot Undershot To shoot too short
Not to reach a traget
Underspend Underspent Underspent To sepnd less money than allocated in the department or company’s budget
Understand Understood Understood To know or come to know the meaning of something
Undertake Undertook Undertaken To accept responsibility for doing something
Underthrust Underthrust Underthrust To insert faulted rock under a passive rock mass
Underwrite Underwrote Underwritten To accept part or all of a financial risk, especially insurance
Undo Undid Undone To ruin somebody’s reputation
To ‘open’ clothes or shoes before taking them off
Undraw Undrew Undrawn To open a curtain
To withdraw
Undraw Undrew Undrawn To open, draw back (curtains, etc)
Unfreeze Unfroze Unfrozen To make assets availably for use
To thaw something
Unhang Unhung Unhung To remove something that is hanging
Unhide Unhid Unhidden To expose something that was hidden
Unhold Unheld Unheld To stop holding or not to hold
Unknit Unknit/Unknitted Unknit/Unknitted To untie
Unlade Unladed Unladen/Unladed To remove cargo, unload
Unlay Unlaid Unlaid To untwist a rope
Unlearn Unlearnt/Unlearned Unlearnt/Unlearned To try to forget or change a habit or something that had been learned
Unmake Unmade Unmade To remove a decision
Unreeve Unrove/Unreeved Unrove/Unreeved To remove a rope from a hook
Unsay Unsaid Unsaid Not to say something
To take back something that you said
Unsell Unsold Unsold To convince someone that something is worthless or false
Unsew Unsewed Unsewn/Unsewed To undo someone sewed, remove the stitches
Unsling Unslung Unslung To remove something held in a sling
Unspeak Unspoke Unspoken To take back what has been said or not to say something
Unspin Unspun Unspun To untwist or unravel
Unstick Unstuck Unstuck To seperate things that have been stuck together
To take off
Unstring Unstrung Unstrung To open something secured with string
Unswear Unswore Unsworn To take back an oath
Unteach Untaught Untaught To make someone forget something they have learned
Unthink Unthought Unthought To remove something from your mind
Untread Untrod Untrodden To tread back, retrace your steps
Unweave Unwove Unwoven To undo things that have been woven together
Unwind Unwound Unwound To relax
Unwrite Unwrote Unwritten To delete writing or not to write
Upbuild Upbuilt Upbuilt To build up, develop on a large scale
Uphold Upheld Upheld To support or confirm a decision
Uppercut Uppercut Uppercut To punch upwards towards someone’s chin
Uprise Uprose Uprisen To get up, stand up, move up
To return from the dead
Upset Upset Upset To make somebody unhappy or disturbed
Upspring Upsprang Upsprung To jump or spring up
Upsweep Upswept Upswept To sweep or brush upwards
Uptear Uptore Uptorn To tear into pieces


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Vex Vext/Vexed Vext/Vexed To trouble or annoy


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Wake Woke Woken To stop sleeping and become conscious
To make somebody stop sleeping
Waylay Waylaid Waylaid To wait for or to stop somebody to rob them
Wear Wore Worn To have clothes on your body
Weave Wove Woven To make material
Wed Wed/Wedded Wed/Wedded To marry
Weep Wept Wept To cry heavily
Wend Wended/Went Wended/Went To go, make your way
Wet Wet/Wetted Wet/Wetted To make something wet by applying a liquid to it
Whipsaw Whipsawed Whipsawn/Whipsawed To cut with whipsaw (a saw for two people)
To victimise
Win Won Won To be the best in a competition, game, election, etc.
Wind Wound Wound To turn something round to make a mechanical process operate
Winterfeed Winterfed Winterfed To feed cattle in the winter when they can’t graze
Wiredraw Wiredrew Wiredrawn To make wire
To make something last a long time, especially speech
Wit Wist Wist To know
Withdraw Withdrew Withdrawn To remove money from a bank
To remove something from a place
Withhold Withheld Withheld Not to let somebody have something
Withstand Withstood Withstood To resist successfully
Wont Wont Wont/Wonted To be accustomed
Work Worked/Wrought Worked/Wrought To make physical or mental effort to produce or achieve something
Wrap Wrapped/Wrapt Wrapped/Wrapt To cover

To transport emotionally

Wreak Wreaked Wreaked/Wroken To cause or make something happen
Wring Wrung Wrung To put a lot of pressure on something to remove liquids
Write Wrote Written To put words onto paper using a pen or pencil


Base Form Past Simple Past Participle Definition
Zinc Zinced/Zincked Zinced/Zincked To coat or cover something with a layer of zinc

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